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Table 1 A summary of the major characteristics of each MULE group identified in the phylogenetic analysis performed in this study (shadings as illustrated in Additional file 1)

From: Evolution of Mutator transposable elements across eukaryotic diversity

Group No. Group Name Host phyla TSD length TIR length ORF number Zn finger type Other motifs/ORFs
Outgroup Rehavkus Arthropoda and Annelida 9 bp 26–400 bp 1 PHD finger Minisatellite in Cterm
1 TvMULE Parabasalia 9–11 bp 20–38 bp 1 FLYWCH for 1 FAR1
2 Phantom-Ca Ascomycota 9 bp 34 bp 1
3 Curupira Platyhelminthes 9 bp None 1 SWIM
4 MULE-Ag Mucoromycota amino acid sequence
5 MULE-Mucorales Mucoromycota 10 bp 40 bp 1 SWIM
6 MULE-Co Filozoa Not indicated in RepBase None 2 The second ORF is unknown
7 Ghost sub-group Cnidaria Cnidaria Not indicated in Repbase 177 bp and amino acid sequences 1
7 Ghost Arthropoda Not identified None and amino acid sequences 1 SWIM
8 Spectre Arthropoda 8 bp 76 bp 1 C2H2
9 MULE-Ov Platyhelminth amino acid sequences only
10 MULE-Pi Oomycota amino acid sequences only
11 MULE1_EI Amoebozoa 9 bp 187 bp 1  
12 MULE-Ei Amoebozoa amino acid sequences only  
13 EMULE Amoebozoa amino acid sequences only
14 MuDR-6_HM Cnidaria Not indicated in RepBase None 1 Ovarian Tumour Gene
15 MULE-Cg Mollusca Not indicated in RepBase 48 bp and 296 bp 1
16 MULE-Phytophthora_1 sub-group Sm Platyhelminthes 9 bp 42–46 bp 1 SWIM and FLYWCH
16 MULE-Phytophthora_1 Oomycota Not indicated in RepBase None, except one with 71 bp 1 or 2 SWIM only in MuDR-5 SET for 14 members
17 MuDRx-Phytophthora Oomycota 9 bp 40–80 bp 1 FLYWCH
18 MULE-Tv Parabasalia 9 bp 100 bp and 31 bp 1
19 MULE-Mollusca Mollusca Not indicated in RepBase None and amino acid sequences 1
20 Phantom Platyhelminthes, Crustacea, Arthropoda, Tunicata and Ichnovirus Not indicated/8-10 bp 18–613/None 1 or 2 None or FLYWCH or SWIM Mini-satellite after the transposase ORF (aphids)
21–34 MULE-Trichinella Annelida Not indicated None and amino acid sequences 1
35 Hop sub-group MULE-Cglob Ascomycota Not indicated in RepBase 51 bp and amino acid sequences 1 CCHC
35 sub-group Mutyl Ascomycota 9–10 bp 22 bp 2 C2H2 Second ORF called MutB in antisens
35 sub-group plants, Phytophthora, Pucciniaand Fungi Magnoliophyta, Oomycota, Basidiomycota and Ascomycota Not indicated in RepBase 30–220 bp and amino acid sequences 1 CCHC, C2H2 and SWIM FAR1 in half the members
35 sub-group Fungi Ascomycota Not indicated in RepBase 85–99 bp and amino acid sequences 1 or 2 CCHC
36 Jittery sub-group MULE-Cc Rhodophyta Not indicated in RepBase 192 bp and 500 bp 1 SWIM Various inserts, potentially host derived
36 sub-group Dicots and Monocots Magnoliophyta Not indicated/8 bp 39–292 bp, none and amino acid seq 1 SWIM or CCHC in Cterm FAR1 in Nterm
37 MULE-Diatoms Stramenopiles No TSD and not indicated 123–124 bp and amino acid sequences 1 SWIM
38 MULE-Cc Rhodophyta 9 bp and not indicated 244 and 640 bp 1 SWIM
39 MULE-Phytophthora_2 Oomycota Not indicated in RepBase 81, 67 bp and amino acid sequences 1 SWIM and CCHC
40 MuDR-4_Sm Platyhelminth Not indicated in RepBase 53 bp 1 SWIM
41 MULE-Cm Magnoliophyta amino acid sequences only
42 MULE-Solanaceae_1 Magnoliophyta 9 bp and not indicated None and amino acid sequences 1 SWIM unknown ORF and PMD (antisens)
43 MULE-Capsicum Magnoliophyta amino acid sequences only
44 MULE-Solanaceae_2 Magnoliophyta, one Oomycota 9 bp and not indicated None and amino acid sequences
45 VANDAL Magnoliophyta 9 bp and not indicated 46–174 bp and amino acid sequences 1 SWIM and CCHC PMD and/or DUF in half the members
46 MuDR-9_OS Magnoliophyta 9 bp 45 bp 1 SWIM PMD
47 MULE-Monocots Magnoliophyta Not indicated in RepBase 14–421 bp and amino acid sequences 1 SWIM or CCHC PMD in most, sometimes antisense
48 MDR Magnoliophyta Not indicated/9 bp 32–373 bp and amino acid sequences 1 SWIM PMD in most, sometimes antisense
49 MUDRAVI2 Magnoliophyta Not indicated/9 bp 80–290 bp and amino acid sequences 1 or 2 SWIM or CCHC PMD in most, often antisense
50 MUDR Magnoliophyta Not indicated/9–10 bp 30–320 bp and amino acid seq 1 or 2 SWIM (CCHC for MuDR-13B_Atr and MuDRB_PT) PMD in antisense for most of them
50 sub-group Phytophthora Oomycota Not indicated in RepBase 40–55 bp 1 SWIM (C3HC4 ring finger for 37_Pi) FAR1 in MULE-1_Pi and MuDR-2_Pso
50 sub-group MUDRAVI Magnoliophyta Not indicated/9 bp 63–447 bp and amino acid sequences 1 SWIM and C2H2 for two members