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Table 1 A summary of the major characteristics of each MULE group identified in the phylogenetic analysis performed in this study (shadings as illustrated in Additional file 1)

From: Evolution of Mutator transposable elements across eukaryotic diversity

Group No.

Group Name

Host phyla

TSD length

TIR length

ORF number

Zn finger type

Other motifs/ORFs

Outgroup

Rehavkus

Arthropoda and Annelida

9 bp

26–400 bp

1

PHD finger

Minisatellite in Cterm

1

TvMULE

Parabasalia

9–11 bp

20–38 bp

1

FLYWCH for 1

FAR1

2

Phantom-Ca

Ascomycota

9 bp

34 bp

1

3

Curupira

Platyhelminthes

9 bp

None

1

SWIM

4

MULE-Ag

Mucoromycota

amino acid sequence

5

MULE-Mucorales

Mucoromycota

10 bp

40 bp

1

SWIM

6

MULE-Co

Filozoa

Not indicated in RepBase

None

2

The second ORF is unknown

7

Ghost sub-group Cnidaria

Cnidaria

Not indicated in Repbase

177 bp and amino acid sequences

1

7

Ghost

Arthropoda

Not identified

None and amino acid sequences

1

SWIM

8

Spectre

Arthropoda

8 bp

76 bp

1

C2H2

9

MULE-Ov

Platyhelminth

amino acid sequences only

10

MULE-Pi

Oomycota

amino acid sequences only

11

MULE1_EI

Amoebozoa

9 bp

187 bp

1

 

12

MULE-Ei

Amoebozoa

amino acid sequences only

 

13

EMULE

Amoebozoa

amino acid sequences only

14

MuDR-6_HM

Cnidaria

Not indicated in RepBase

None

1

Ovarian Tumour Gene

15

MULE-Cg

Mollusca

Not indicated in RepBase

48 bp and 296 bp

1

16

MULE-Phytophthora_1 sub-group Sm

Platyhelminthes

9 bp

42–46 bp

1

SWIM and FLYWCH

16

MULE-Phytophthora_1

Oomycota

Not indicated in RepBase

None, except one with 71 bp

1 or 2

SWIM only in MuDR-5

SET for 14 members

17

MuDRx-Phytophthora

Oomycota

9 bp

40–80 bp

1

FLYWCH

18

MULE-Tv

Parabasalia

9 bp

100 bp and 31 bp

1

19

MULE-Mollusca

Mollusca

Not indicated in RepBase

None and amino acid sequences

1

20

Phantom

Platyhelminthes, Crustacea, Arthropoda, Tunicata and Ichnovirus

Not indicated/8-10 bp

18–613/None

1 or 2

None or FLYWCH or SWIM

Mini-satellite after the transposase ORF (aphids)

21–34

MULE-Trichinella

Annelida

Not indicated

None and amino acid sequences

1

35

Hop sub-group MULE-Cglob

Ascomycota

Not indicated in RepBase

51 bp and amino acid sequences

1

CCHC

35

sub-group Mutyl

Ascomycota

9–10 bp

22 bp

2

C2H2

Second ORF called MutB in antisens

35

sub-group plants, Phytophthora, Pucciniaand Fungi

Magnoliophyta, Oomycota, Basidiomycota and Ascomycota

Not indicated in RepBase

30–220 bp and amino acid sequences

1

CCHC, C2H2 and SWIM

FAR1 in half the members

35

sub-group Fungi

Ascomycota

Not indicated in RepBase

85–99 bp and amino acid sequences

1 or 2

CCHC

36

Jittery sub-group MULE-Cc

Rhodophyta

Not indicated in RepBase

192 bp and 500 bp

1

SWIM

Various inserts, potentially host derived

36

sub-group Dicots and Monocots

Magnoliophyta

Not indicated/8 bp

39–292 bp, none and amino acid seq

1

SWIM or CCHC in Cterm

FAR1 in Nterm

37

MULE-Diatoms

Stramenopiles

No TSD and not indicated

123–124 bp and amino acid sequences

1

SWIM

38

MULE-Cc

Rhodophyta

9 bp and not indicated

244 and 640 bp

1

SWIM

39

MULE-Phytophthora_2

Oomycota

Not indicated in RepBase

81, 67 bp and amino acid sequences

1

SWIM and CCHC

40

MuDR-4_Sm

Platyhelminth

Not indicated in RepBase

53 bp

1

SWIM

41

MULE-Cm

Magnoliophyta

amino acid sequences only

42

MULE-Solanaceae_1

Magnoliophyta

9 bp and not indicated

None and amino acid sequences

1

SWIM

unknown ORF and PMD (antisens)

43

MULE-Capsicum

Magnoliophyta

amino acid sequences only

44

MULE-Solanaceae_2

Magnoliophyta, one Oomycota

9 bp and not indicated

None and amino acid sequences

45

VANDAL

Magnoliophyta

9 bp and not indicated

46–174 bp and amino acid sequences

1

SWIM and CCHC

PMD and/or DUF in half the members

46

MuDR-9_OS

Magnoliophyta

9 bp

45 bp

1

SWIM

PMD

47

MULE-Monocots

Magnoliophyta

Not indicated in RepBase

14–421 bp and amino acid sequences

1

SWIM or CCHC

PMD in most, sometimes antisense

48

MDR

Magnoliophyta

Not indicated/9 bp

32–373 bp and amino acid sequences

1

SWIM

PMD in most, sometimes antisense

49

MUDRAVI2

Magnoliophyta

Not indicated/9 bp

80–290 bp and amino acid sequences

1 or 2

SWIM or CCHC

PMD in most, often antisense

50

MUDR

Magnoliophyta

Not indicated/9–10 bp

30–320 bp and amino acid seq

1 or 2

SWIM (CCHC for MuDR-13B_Atr and MuDRB_PT)

PMD in antisense for most of them

50

sub-group Phytophthora

Oomycota

Not indicated in RepBase

40–55 bp

1

SWIM (C3HC4 ring finger for 37_Pi)

FAR1 in MULE-1_Pi and MuDR-2_Pso

50

sub-group MUDRAVI

Magnoliophyta

Not indicated/9 bp

63–447 bp and amino acid sequences

1

SWIM and C2H2 for two members