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Table 1 Methods for purifying VLPs

From: Viral communities of the human gut: metagenomic analysis of composition and dynamics

VLPs isolation steps Methods Pros Cons References
Starting material amount 0.5 ~ 5 g Recovery of low abundant viruses Long processing time; Difficult in filtration with high mucus samples (such as meconium) [10, 12,13,14,15]
0.1 ~ 0.3 g Simple and quick Lost of low abundant viruses [17, 28, 29, 31]
Suspension buffer SM buffer Long-term storage of viruses   [10, 12,13,14,15, 28, 31]
PBS buffer    [17, 29]
Filtration pore size 0.20 μm Better efficiency of removing host and other microbial cells Lost of viruses larger than 0.20 μm [13,14,15, 31]
0.45 μm Recovery of viruses larger than 0.20 μm Less efficiency of removing host and other microbial cells [12, 29]
0.45 μm filtration followed by 0.20 μm filtration    [10, 17, 28]
VLPs enrichment Centricon Centrifugal Filter Simple and quick Proteins from host or other microbial cells cannot be filtered [13, 31]
CsCl density gradient centrifugation Better efficiency of removing host and other microbial cells Long processing time; Limited number of samples that can be processed in parallel [10, 14, 15]
Further purification Usage of chloroform Better efficiency of removing host and other microbial cells Lost of enveloped viruses [10, 12,13,14,15, 17, 28, 31]
No chloroform Recovery of enveloped viruses Less efficiency of removing host and other microbial cells [29]