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Table 2 Activation of oncogenes by Onco-exaptation of TE-derived promoters

From: Endogenous retroviral promoter exaptation in human cancer

Genea Gene function Primary result of TE-driven expression TE type TE promoter coordinates (hg38) Cancer type references
CSF1R Tyrosine kinase receptor Ectopic expression of normal protein (ERVL-MaLR) THE1B LTR chr5:150092453–150092809 HL [113]
IRF5 Transcription factor Ectopic expression of normal protein (ERV1) LOR1a LTR chr7:128936859–128937097 HL [117, 119]
MET Tyrosine kinase receptor Protein truncation (L1) L1PA2 chr7:116718498–116724489 CML, others? [124, 125]
ALK Tyrosine kinase receptor Protein truncation (ERVL) LTR16B2 chr2:29223783–29224196 melanoma [38]
ERRB4 Tyrosine kinase receptor Protein truncation (ERVL-MaLR) MLT1C LTR
(ERVL-MaLR) MLT1H2 LTR
chr2:211693702–211694209
chr2:211465146–211465419
ALCL [129]
SLCO1B3 Anion transporter Chimeric protein (ERV1) LTR7b chr12:20822187–20822617 colon, others [133, 136]
FABP7 Fatty acid binding Chimeric protein (ERV1) LTR2 chr6:122748805–122749262 DLBCL [138]
  1. aOnly those cases with supporting evidence of a role in the cancer are listed
  2. bThe fact that the promoter for these isoforms is an LTR was not noted in the cited papers