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Table 1 Cellular factors associated with mammalian non-LTR retrotransposon activity

From: Restricting retrotransposons: a review

Protein Symbol (Hs) (1) Alternative Name (Hs or Mm) (1) Protein Name Source species of factor (1) Comment Altered retrotransposition reported References
Post-transcriptional
AICDA AID Activation-induced cytidine deaminase various RNA-editing cytidine deaminase Y [142, 144]
APOBEC1   Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 1 various RNA-editing cytidine deaminase Y [143, 145]
APOBEC3   Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3 Hs RNA-editing cytidine deaminase Y [136, 145, 149, 152, 153, 160, 515521]
ATG5   Autophagy related 5 Hs Autophagy E1-like activating enzyme Y [52]
BECN1 ATG6 Beclin 1 Mm Autophagy factor Y [52]
CALCOCO2 NDP52 Calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2 Hs Macroautophagy receptor Y [52]
HNRNPL   Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L Hs   Y [56, 236, 240, 261]
KIAA0430 MARF1, LKAP Meiosis arrest female protein 1 Hs Regulator of oogenesis   [266, 267]
MOV10   Mov10 RISC complex RNA helicase Hs Putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase Y [232, 234237]
MTNR1A MT1 Melatonin receptor 1A Hs   Y [258]
PABPC1 PABP1 Poly(A) binding protein cytoplasmic 1 Hs   Y [259]
RNASEL   Ribonuclease L Hs Endoribonuclease/component of 2-5A system Y [254]
SAMHD1   SAM and HD domain containing deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase 1 Hs,Mm   Y [168, 169, 171, 172]
SQSTM1 P62 Sequestosome 1 Hs Macroautophagy receptor Y [52]
TEX19 TEX19.1 Testis expressed 19 Mm    [264, 265]
TREX1 AGS1 Three prime repair exonuclease 1 Mm 3' exonuclease Y [257]
ZC3HAV1 PARP13, ZAP Zinc finger CCCH-type containing, antiviral 1 Hs Antiviral protein Y [236, 240, 250]
piRNA/RNAi-Pathways
ASZ1 GASZ Ankyrin repeat, SAM and basic leucine zipper domain containing 1 Mm    [206, 217]
DDX4 MVH, VASA DEAD-box helicase 4 Mm ATP-dependent RNA helicase   [210, 217]
DGCR8 pasha DGCR8 microprocessor complex subunit Hs Subunit of microprocessor Y [196, 197]
DICER1 DCR1 Dicer 1, ribonuclease type III Hs dsRNA endoribonuclease Y [191, 194]
DROSHA RNASEN Drosha ribonuclease type III Hs dsRNA-specific endoribonuclease/subunit of microprocessor Y [197]
EXD1   Exonuclease 3'-5' domain containing 1 Mm 3'-5' exonuclease activity   [223]
FKBP6   FK506 binding protein 6 Mm Cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerase   [215]
GTSF1 CUE110 Gametocyte specific factor 1 Mm UPF0224 (FAM112) family member   [209]
HENMT1   HEN1 methyltransferase homolog 1 Mm 2'-O-methylation pf piRNAs   [221]
HSP90AA1 HSP90N Heat shock protein 90 alpha family class A member 1 Mm Molecular chaperone   [220]
MAEL   Maelstrom spermatogenic transposon silencer Mm    [204]
MIR128-1   microRNA 128-1 Hs   Y [192]
MOV10L1   Mov10 RISC complex RNA helicase like 1 Mm Putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase   [244, 245]
  Nct1/2 Non-coding in testis 1/2 Mm piRNA encoding non-coding RNAs   [205]
PIWIL1 MIWI Piwi like RNA-mediated gene silencing 1 Mm Argonaute family member   [212]
PIWIL2 MILI Piwi like RNA-mediated gene silencing 2 Mm Argonaute family member   [200, 211, 216, 217]
PIWIL4 MIWI2 Piwi like RNA-mediated gene silencing 4 Mm Argonaute family member   [202, 203, 211, 212, 222]
PLD6 MITOPLD Phospholipase D family member 6 Mm    [213]
TDRD1   Tudor domain containing 1 Mm    [207]
TDRD5   Tudor domain containing 5 Mm    [214]
TDRD9   Tudor domain containing 9 Mm Putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase   [208, 217]
TDRD12   Tudor domain containing 12 Mm Putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase   [218]
TDRKH TDRD2 Tudor and KH domain containing Mm    [219]
Epigenetic/Nuclear Factors
ALKBH1   alkB homolog 1, histone H2A dioxygenase Mm 3-methylcytosine demethylase   [366]
ATM   ATM serine/threonine kinase Hs,Mm PI3/PI4-kinase family member Y [369371]
CHAF1 CAF1 Chromatin assembly factor 1 Mm Assembles histone octamer   [297]
DCLRE1C ARTEMIS DNA cross-link repair 1C Gg Roles in NHEJ DNA repair and V(D)J recombination Y [367]
DNMT1   DNA methyltransferase 1 Hs,Mm    [313, 340]
DNMT3A   DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha Hs,Mm    [313, 340, 342, 344]
DNMT3B   DNA methyltransferase 3 beta Hs,Mm    [313, 340, 342, 344]
DNMT3L   DNA methyltransferase 3 like Mm DNA methyltransferase cofactor   [222, 342, 345]
EHMT2 G9A Euchromatic histone lysine methyltransferase 2 Mm Histone H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 methyltransferase   [289]
ERCC1 RAD10 ERCC excision repair 1, endonuclease non-catalytic subunit Cg Nucleotide excision repair Y [368]
ERCC4 XPF ERCC excision repair 4, endonuclease catalytic subunit Hs,Cg Nucleotide excision repair (heterodimer with ERCC1) Y [368]
KDM1A LSD1 Lysine demethylase 1A Mm Histone H3K4me and H3K9me demethylase   [363]
LIG4   DNA ligase 4 Gg Roles in NHEJ DNA repair and V(D)J recombination Y [367]
MECP2   Methyl CpG binding protein 2 Hs,Mm Binds methylated DNA Y [355357]
MORC1   MORC family CW-type zinc finger 1 Mm Role in early spermatogenesis   [352]
PRKDC XRCC7, DNA-PKcs Protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide Cg NHEJ DNA double-strand break repair Y [68, 72]
SIRT6   Sirtuin 6 Mm NAD-dependent protein deacetylase Y [473]
SUV39H   Suppressor of variegation 3–9 homolog 1 Hs,Mm Histone H3-K9 methyltransferase 1   [286, 288, 291]
TRIM28 KAP1 Tripartite motif containing 28 Hs,Mm Nuclear corepressor for KRAB-ZFPs   [313]
UHRF1 NP95, ICBP90 Ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 1 Mm RING-finger type E3 ubiquitin ligases   [351]
XRCC4   X-ray repair cross complementing 4 Cg DNA single-strand break repair Y [68, 72]
XRCC6 KU70 X-ray repair cross complementing 6 Gg ssDNA-dependent ATP-dependent helicase Y [367]
Krüppel-associated box domain-containing zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs)     
  GM6871 Predicted gene 6871 Mm    [313]
ZBTB16 PLZF Zinc finger and BTB domain containing 16 Hs,Mm   Y [317]
  ZFP819 Zinc finger protein 819 Mm    [314]
ZNF91   Zinc finger protein 91 Hominidae    [315]
ZNF93   Zinc finger protein 93 Hominidae   Y [315]
Other transcription factors     
AHR   Aryl hydrocarbon receptor Mm,Dr Ligand-activated transcription factor   [109, 114]
CTCF   CCCTC-binding factor various BORIS + CTCF gene family member   [108, 116]
ETS1   ETS proto-oncogene 1, transcription factor Hs ETS transcription family member   [102]
RAR   Retinoic acid receptor Hs Thyroid-steroid hormone receptor superfamily member   [107, 115]
  RB/E2F1 RB transcriptional corepressor proteins/E2F transcription factor 1 Hs,Mm Transcription repressor complex   [112, 298]
RUNX3   Runt-related transcription factor 3 Hs Runt domain-containing transcription family member Y [104]
SNAI2 SLUG Snail family transcriptional repressor 2 Mm,Dr Snail C2H2-type zinc finger transcription family member   [109, 114]
SOX2   SRY-box 2 Hs,Mm SRY-related HMG-box (SOX) transcription family member   [103, 106, 111]
SP1   Sp1 transcription factor Hs zinc finger transcription factor   [102]
  TCF-LEF T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor Rn Wnt transcription factors   [111]
TP53 p53 tumor protein p53 Dr,Hs,Mm tumor suppressor protein Y [110, 299, 300]
YY1   YY1 transcription factor Hs,Mm GLI-Kruppel zinc finger transcription family member   [101, 105, 113]
  1. (1) Cg, Cricetulus griseus; Cl, Canis lupus; Dr, Danio rerio; Gg, Gallus gallus; Hs, Homo sapiens; Mm, Mus musculus, Rn, Rattus norvegicus