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Table 1 Modes of intercellular and interkingdom DNA transfer.

From: Mobile DNA and evolution in the 21st century

Horizontal transfer mode Documented transfers
Uptake of environmental DNA Bacteria -- bacteria [74, 168, 169]
  Plant -- bacteria [170, 171]
  Plastid transfection [172]
  Mammalian cell transfection [173, 174] and lipofection [175, 176]
Conjugal transfer Bacteria -- bacteria [74]
  Bacteria -- yeast [177]
  Bacteria -- plant [178, 179]
Viral transduction and gene transfer agents Bacteria -- bacteria [74, 180]
  Bacteria -- plant [181]
  Animal cell -- animal cell [182]
  Animal cell -- virus [183]
Parasitic or endosymbiotic association Plant -- fern [184]
  Plant -- plant [91, 90]
  Bacteria -- invertebrate [89]
Undetermined mechanism Archaea -- bacteria [76]