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Table 1 Studies describing long interspersed nucleotide element (LINE)-1 hypomethylation in malignant tissues.

From: Mobilizing diversity: transposable element insertions in genetic variation and disease

Tumor Evidence for LINE hypomethylation Reference
Breast cancer 5' flanking sequences of hypomethylated L1 homo sapien elements were isolated from T-47 D cells by inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR) [94]
Chronic myeloid leukaemia (blast phase) Methylation-specific PCR of primary samples; hypomethylation associated with blast crisis, high levels of BCR-ABL messenger RNA, resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitor chemotherapy [95]
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia A variety of primary specimens analysed by Hpa II restriction enzyme digest and Southern blot analysis [96]
Colorectal adenocarcinoma As compared to neighbouring normal colon;
colorectal carcinomas with sporadic microsatellite instability a noted exception; alternative progression pathways proposed
Hepatocellular carcinoma Hepatocellular carcinomas compared to surrounding cirrhotic liver; Hpa II restriction enzyme digest [99]
Neuroendocrine tumours Well-differentiated pancreatic endocrine and carcinoid tumours compared to surrounding tissue; LINE hypomethylation correlates with lymph node metastasis and cytogenetic aberrations [100]
Prostate cancer Adenocarcinoma compared to surrounding tissue; hypomethylation of L1 s associated with preoperative PSA, Gleason grade, and clinical stage; associated independently with cytogenetic abnormalities [101103]
Urothelial carcinoma L1 hypomethylation detected by Southern blot in most specimens [104106]